# Tutorial 04: larcv_threadio for training

Posted on Wed 06 December 2017 in misc by Kazuhiro Terao

This notebook demonstrates how one can use a dedicated tool to fast read data from larcv file and load into a numpy array for network training. We will use a python interface class called dataloader2.larcv_threadio (let's not ask what happened to dataloader1).

### Some details (feel free to ignore)¶

larcv_threadio is a mere python API to use ThreadProcessor, a multi-threaded larcv file reader written in C++. If you would like to write your own C++ API, you can still use ThreadProcessor to write a wrapper API.

In [2]:
from __future__ import print_function

import ROOT
from larcv import larcv
import numpy
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
%matplotlib inline



larcv_threadio accepts a simple dictionary with configuration parameters. There are only 3 parameters:

• verbosity ... recommended value=0. When > 0, some status information is printed out into sys.stdout stream.
• filler_cfg ... necessary! This is acutal meat that configures an internal larcv C++ object (ThreadProcessor).
• filler_name ... necessary! This has to match to the string key of a configuration block inside the filler_cfg file. You'll see it in the following.

### Some details (feel free to ignore)¶

In case you wonder why you need filler_name ... this is because larcv configuration file can contain more than one configuration parameter set in one file. This parameter is used to identify which configuration parameter set should be used.

In [3]:
# construct configuration dictionary
filler_cfg={}
filler_cfg["verbosity"]   = 0,

proc.configure(filler_cfg)

 setting verbosity 3


Next, let's take a look at the actual configuration file we fed to filler_cfg.

### If above cell does not return in a few seconds...¶

then it is even more important to look at the configuration. One possible issue is crogged text to be printed on the notebook. We have to make sure the Verbosity value is set to 3 or larger everywhere.

In [4]:
print(open('configs/example_dataloader.cfg').read())

ThreadProcessor: {
Verbosity:    3
NumBatchStorage: 2
RandomAccess: true
InputFiles:   ["../proton.root","../electron.root"]
ProcessType:  ["BatchFillerImage2D","BatchFillerPIDLabel"]
ProcessName:  ["image","label"]
ProcessList: {
image: {
Verbosity: 3
ImageProducer: "data"
Channels: [2]
EnableMirror: false
}
label: {
Verbosity: 3
ParticleProducer: "mctruth"
PdgClassList: [2212,11]
}
}
}



### Whoa...¶

Yep, there's a lot going on here. I don't recommend you try to understand all of them right now. In fact, it is a lot easier once you nail larcv usage first. I cover minimal portions here since my focus is to get you familiarized with larcv_threadio and not "larcv in general".

## Minimum details¶

Remember this is a configuration to enable multi-threaded reading of data. So keep a big picture in mind: the purpose of this file is to tell C++ program how/what to read from larcv data file.

### ThreadProcessor block¶

There are 3 levels of configuration parameters. The biggest clause is around ThreadProcessor. Note this name is what needed to match to filler_name for larcv_threadio configuration dictionary. Inside this block, there is a list of parameters covered below.

• NumThreads ... positive int ... number of threads to instantiate for reading a file
• NumBatchStorage ... positive int ... number of a batch data buffer storage. Each storage is filled by a dedicated thread. So it makes sense to set this equal or larger than NumThreads.
• RandomAccess ... true/false ... randomizes an order of data (event) to be accessed in the file(s)
• InputFiles ... string array ... a list of input larcv files you want the reader to use. The order does not matter if RandomAccess is true.
• ProcessType ... string array ... a list of larcv C++ modules (C++ class names) to be run in respective order. BatchFillerImage2D takes input 2D image data. BatchFillerPIDLabel takes input simulation information and generate a particle label based on PDG code.
• ProcessName ... string array ... a list of unique string names for declared larcv modules in ProcessType argument. This is used to look up a module-specific configuration parameters (see below).
• ProcessList ... configuration block ... see next section :)

### ProcessList block¶

This block contains a list of larcv module configuration parameter sets with a module's unique name as a key. Here, we see image for BatchFillerImage2D module and label for BatchFillerPIDLabel.

### image block¶

This block configures BatchFillerImage2D which reads in input image data.

• ImageProducer ... string ... this is a label to identify which 2D image data product from the input file to read.
• Channels ... positive int array ... 2D image data has multiple channels, and this parameter specifies which channel(s) to read. Here, we will use only channel 2.
• EnableMirror ... true/false ... when set to true, input data is randomly flipped with respect to the center vertical axis (left/right mirroring). This is one of the most simple data augmentation technique.

### label block¶

This block configures BatchFillerPIDLabel which defines a single classification label 2d image read by BatchFillerImage2D using simulation information.

• ParticleProducer ... string ... this is a label to identify which "simulation information" should be used.
• PdgClassList ... signed int array ... this lists PDG code, a unique identifier of a particle type to define a set of classification target. Here, 2212 and 11 correspond to proton and electron respectively. The index of PDG code is typically used as a classification label. In this example, proton has label 0 as its index is 0.

## Let's run!¶

Too much text! Let's run larcv_threadio to read in some data! First, we issue the command to start the multi-threaded data read.

In [5]:
proc.start_manager(10)


where the argument is number of data segments (events, or images) to read and store into 1 buffer = 1 batch. Once start_manager command is issued, all active threads go find an available storage buffer to fill them. Remember you specified number of threads and storage buffers by NumThreads and NumBatchStorage configuration parameters.

The next command moves the data stored in the buffer into a numpy array so that we can access in python.

In [6]:
proc.next()


## How to "fetch" a batch data¶

In order to access the stored batch data, simply call larcv_threadio.fetch_data function (below). Here, you should give an argument string that is the name of larcv module responsible for reading data for you. Let's fetch an image data.

In [7]:
data = proc.fetch_data('image')
print(type(data))

<class 'larcv.dataloader2.batch_pydata'>


as you can see, the return of fetch_data is batch_pydata which holds two information about data: the numpy array of data itself and its dimension. You can access them like:

In [8]:
image_data = data.data()
dim_data   = data.dim()

print('numpy data shape',image_data.shape,'... full shape info:', dim_data)

numpy data shape (10, 65536) ... full shape info: [ 10 256 256   1]


Data is stored in image_data in the form of (10,65536), which is 10 batch of data. dim_data is the full data dimension: [10,256,256,1] means this is "10 batch data of 256x256x1 image". You can see it is 2D image with 1 channel. Note 256*256*1 = 65536. We can visualize an image using a simple imshow.

In [9]:
image_reshaped = image_data.reshape(dim_data[:-1])
fig,ax = plt.subplots(figsize=(8,8))
plt.imshow(image_reshaped[0],cmap='jet',interpolation='none')
plt.show()


## Labels?¶

Yep, we should also have data filled by BatchFillerPIDLabel. Remember how to fetch?

In [10]:
label = proc.fetch_data('label')
label_data = label.data()
dim_label  = label.dim()

print('numpy data shape',label_data.shape,'... full shape info:', dim_label)

numpy data shape (10, 2) ... full shape info: [10  2]


Since we defined labels with only 2 particles, the dimension is quite simple: (10,2). With this size, you can simply print them out to check the content, right?

In [11]:
print(label_data)

[[ 0.  1.]
[ 1.  0.]
[ 1.  0.]
[ 0.  1.]
[ 0.  1.]
[ 1.  0.]
[ 1.  0.]
[ 1.  0.]
[ 0.  1.]
[ 0.  1.]]


So we know the 1st image is an electron because we defined PdgClassList: [2212,11] in the configuration and the label for the entry 0 is [0,1]. Looks like we can find a proton in the next image :)

In [13]:
fig,ax = plt.subplots(figsize=(8,8))
plt.imshow(image_reshaped[1],cmap='jet',interpolation='none')
plt.show()


## Next batch!¶

How to get the next buffer storage? Quite simple:

In [14]:
proc.next()
label = proc.fetch_data('label')
print(label.data())

[[ 0.  1.]
[ 0.  1.]
[ 1.  0.]
[ 0.  1.]
[ 1.  0.]
[ 0.  1.]
[ 0.  1.]
[ 1.  0.]
[ 0.  1.]
[ 1.  0.]]


## What happened to the last batch?¶

It is gone :( So how did this happen?

To answer this, it's important to emphasize the term "available" storage buffer. Earlier we learned that threads read from file and fill data into an available storage buffer. What does "available" mean? That means storage buffer that is either empty (initial state) OR ready to be refilled. This is sometimes called consumer-producer model. A user (you) is a consumer here, and next function flags previously accessed data is already consumed, and make that buffer as the next "available" storage buffer.

# Questions?¶

This completes the quick-start tutorial of larcv_threadio. Hope this helped for you to understand how this is working when used in our training example notebook.